Medien

Fake News – Wenn Fakten zweitrangig werden

Jeder, der regelmäßig soziale Medien nutzt, trifft in Netzwerken wie Facebook oder Twitter früher oder später auf plakative Schlagzeilen mit provokantem Inhalt. Nicht immer beruhen solche Meldungen auf realen Tatsachen. Was Fake News sind, wer sie verbreitet und wie du sie erkennst, erfährst du in unserer dreiteiligen Cross-Media-Serie. Teil 1: Wann spricht man von Fake News und wie beeinflussen sie uns?

Was sind Fake News?

Von einem „schwammigen Begriff, der heute fast schon inflationär verwendet wird“, spricht Medienpsychologin Astrid Carolus von der Uni Würzburg, wenn sie auf den Begriff Fake News angesprochen wird [1]. 2016 wurde er zum Anglizismus des Jahres gewählt, was bedeutet, dass es für diesen englischen Begriff keine klare deutsche Entsprechung gibt. Häufig wird „Fake News“ nur als „Falschmeldungen“ übersetzt, was allerdings zu kurz greift, da so nicht zwischen bewusster Irreführung und echten journalistischen Fehlern unterschieden wird.

Streng genommen sind nämlich nur solche Falschmeldungen, die vorsätzlich bzw. grob fahrlässig verbreitet werden, Fake News. In Wahlkampfzeiten und gesellschaftlichen Debatten sollen sie Ängste schüren und Stimmung für oder gegen bestimmte Themen machen. Gezielte Falschmeldungen sind nach einer aktuellen Untersuchung der Landesanstalt für Medien NRW offenbar so stark verbreitet, dass 59 % der Befragten angaben, im Internet bereits mit Fake News konfrontiert worden zu sein [2].

Falle Nr. 1: Die Filter-Blase

„Fake News – darauf fallen doch nur Leute rein, die nie gelernt haben, kritisch zu denken und schon vom Zeitunglesen überfordert sind.“ Wer so denkt, liegt … falsch! Gegen Fake News ist keiner von uns immun. Der Grund: Jeder Mensch hat das Bedürfnis, die eigenen Überzeugungen und Einstellungen bestätigt zu bekommen und sich entsprechend zu verhalten. Gelingt dies nicht, kommt es zu inneren Spannungen. Indem man bewusst oder unbewusst nur das wahrnimmt, was ohnehin schon der eigenen Meinung entspricht bzw. Informationen so interpretiert, dass eigene Ansichten gestützt werden, lässt sich der innere Konflikt teilweise ausblenden.

Wenn eine Aussage in unser Weltbild passt, kommt es uns meist gar nicht mehr in den Sinn, ihren Wahrheitsgehalt zu hinterfragen. Wir liken, teilen oder kommentieren den Beitrag und bekommen dafür positives Feedback von Gleichgesinnten. Die Algorithmen auf Facebook, Twitter und Co. registrieren sehr genau, für welche Themen wir uns interessieren, und zeigen uns auch zukünftig ähnliche Beiträge. Wir befinden uns in der sogenannten Filter-Blase, die uns stetig mit auf uns zugeschnittenem Content versorgt. Und da der Platz in unserer Timeline begrenzt ist, erreichen uns andere Meinungen und Blickwinkel irgendwann gar nicht mehr.

Falle Nr. 2: Der Sleeper-Effekt

Aber auch wer diese Mechanismen kennt und mit den sogenannten „News“ in den sozialen Netzwerken kritisch umgeht, kann in die Falle tappen. Schuld daran ist der sogenannte Sleeper-Effekt. Demnach kann es passieren, dass wir uns nach einer gewissen Zeit noch an den Inhalt eines Artikels erinnern, allerdings die Quelle vergessen haben.

Ein Beispiel: Du schaust dir im Internet einen Artikel an, identifizierst ihn als Falschmeldung und erkennst, dass die Informationen unwahr sind. Nach einigen Wochen fällt dir die Meldung womöglich während eines Gesprächs mit ähnlichem Thema wieder ein. „Ja, das habe ich auch gelesen! Ich weiß bloß gerade nicht mehr wo.“ Und du weißt zu diesem Zeitpunkt auch nicht mehr, dass du den Artikel ja ursprünglich als Fake News erkannt hast. Plötzlich glaubst du das, was du zuvor richtigerweise als falsch entlarvt hattest [3].

Sind wir also völlig chancenlos gegen Fake News? Aufgeben? Nein! Wie ihr sie erkennen und gegen sie vorgehen könnt, erfahrt ihr im zweiten Teil der Serie.

Weitere Teile der Serie

Teil 2: Wie kann ich Fake News erkennen?
Teil 3: Wie und warum werden Fake News verbreitet? 

Quellen:

[1]
Schindelmann, Jasmin: „Wenn Emotionen Fakten schlagen“. In: Main Post, Nr. 94/2017, S. 20.

[2]
http://www.lfm-nrw.de/service/pressemitteilungen/pressemitteilungen-2017/2017/juni/neue-lfm-studie-zu-fake-news-mehr-als-die-haelfte-der-onlinenutzer-hat-erfahrung-damit.html

[3]
http://www.ard.de/home/ard/Was_die_Wissenschaft_zu_Fake_News_sagt/3733254/index.html

ME, LMR

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